The gap between science and religion occurred in the late Middle Ages, with the historical movement called the Renaissance and its ideal rationalist Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was a general movement - that is, a philosophical movement, political, social, economic and cultural - which advocated the use of reason as the best way to achieve freedom, autonomy and emancipation.
As always, the movement of the reaction force, over time, distort and manipulate history to justify their goals and ideas.
In classical antiquity, although Greece was the cradle of rationalism, of its thinkers had linked to some deep mystical currents, like the Orphic, Pythagorean, Neoplatonic, and institutions mysteries of Dionysus, Eleusis and Samothrace. There was also a great fascination of the Greeks by the Egyptian mysteries. These ancient cultures had a long tradition of priests doctors and scientists, with no separation between science and religion.
However, it was in Greece that brought the first attempts to create a purely scientific knowledge, regardless of the myths and religion, and generated a long series of independent thinkers rationalists.
With Christianity, has widened the gap between science and religion, even though it has recorded the existence of religious dedicated to science as Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus.
The Inquisition was the extreme and pathological reached by intolerance and religious persecution. Thousands of people have been sacrificed at the stake for heresy or suspicion of heresy. The medieval religiosity reached such points of affirmation of faith and curtailment of freedom of thought and choice, which caused an uproar and a quest for the opposite extreme: the negation of all values of faith and spirituality, seeking in classical Greek philosophers and artists Roman inspiration for new forms of thought and expression. The man became, then, the reference center of the world, removing God from his throne (theocentrism), replacing them with reason.
This whole atmosphere of bigotry that has proliferated in the Middle Ages was the breeding ground for the opposite reaction to freedom of thought and expression, making it inevitable separation between science and philosophy of one hand and religion on the other, that actually occurred from the sixteenth century. This separation was a major cause of alienation and confusion of our time.
In the nineteenth century, all educated people tended to materialism, while the simple souls and emotional religiosity tended to extreme and thoughtless. The advent of Spiritualism - opened this century - of theosophy, Christian Science and other mystical rationalist movement was a first attempt to unite science and religion into a unified knowledge.
As can be seen, the first attempt of unification of religions from the ground. Not exactly the religions, but of alternative religions or "philosophies" of life in which there was greater freedom of thought and expression. The official religions had become powerful, authoritarian and inflexible, no longer serving as a vehicle suitable for the expression "eternal truths". The renovation was necessary.
The side of science, the attempt of unification came in unexpected ways. Freud developed a theory about the human unconscious, on a totally materialistic. His chief disciple, Jung, other than master, developed a complementary theory of the human psyche, based on archetypes, that comes very close to the mystical land. Jung was a great scholar of mandalas, the I Ching and alchemy, having finished his life as an occultist in his house in Switzerland to which he called "the castle".
Among the great scientists of the twentieth century, Einstein and Niels Bohr had remarkable mystical tendencies. Thomas Edison, the greatest inventor of all time, was recorded Theosophist. Einstein, in turn, had claimed that a small science moves away from God, but much science leads us back to God.
At the end of the twentieth century, the physical world famous Fritjoff Capra published two masterpieces, The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point. These works definitely put the new physics (quantum physics) in alignment with spirituality. Many physicists, inspired by such works have become Buddhists, Taoists or adherents of other branches of mysticism.
The various discoveries made by neuroscience, brought with them a current that is indicative of the existence of the spirit in the brain, bringing the assertion that science and religion can go together. Researchers in the area are close to the conclusion that the human brain is a computer. But no computer program and produces the very same as do we need to install a program to make it work and the soul or spirit of the computer has the software that is installed on it. The brain is the same thing, he has no ability to self-management and to work, it is necessary to introduce a force that is the spirit.
In the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, there were other theories and metaphors for the interpretation of reality, holographic-inspired models and monistic, as the Gaia Hypothesis, the unified field theory and superstring theory. The latest theory, "The Theology of Science" - is written by a Polish researcher. Michael Heller, one of the most respected scientists in the field of cosmology and also one of the most renowned theologians of his country, was a pioneer in formulating a new theory which unites God and science. In their work, the scholar has addressed the question of the origin of the universe on advanced aspects of the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Thanks are also some fundamental tools based on the principal theory of relativity, Albert Einstein. He delved into the mysteries of cosmic conditions, the absence of gravity interferes with the laws of physics, and quantum physics.
All these theories are attempts to establish a bridge between religion and science, creating a new era for humanity, based on the principle that there should be a unified knowledge, corresponding to the unity of life.
No one knows what will be the new religion of humanity, but one can say with absolute certainty, which will eliminate the gap between religion and science, since all jobs precursors moving in this direction.